Sciedu Press Launches New Journal for Management and Orgnaization Studies

Sciedu Press, a scientific publishing house based out of Toronto, Canada, has announced the launch of its newest journal, “Management and Organizational Studies”. “Management and Organizational Studies” will examine a wide variety of topics within the field, from strategic management and HRM to detailed analyses of new studies in organization behavior and development, collaboration, leadership, and even sensitive issues such as workplace spirituality.

“Management and Organizational Studies” will be joining a lineup of quality scientific journals including “Biology and Medicine”, “Economics and Management”, “Sciences and Engineering”, and “Social Sciences and Humanities” in publishing a wide range of articles examining the field at a variety of levels. From theoretical examinations of management and organization to empirical, or fact-based, studies and analyses that go in-depth to examine original research and statistics. Sciedu Press has begun this new venture in the hope of shedding light on some of the most important issues in management and organization studies.

This peer-reviewed journal will take a close look at various topics within organizational studies, which span a broad spectrum of other branches of study from anthropology to psychology. The theories and studies being proposed and researched in this field are quickly leading to breakthroughs in schools and workplace, and are helping management professionals of all kinds to develop new methods of organization and leadership to successfully build stronger relationships between large groups of individuals. These relationships can be vital in a number of ways, from the academic success of students to the financial success of large companies.

Sciedu Press had made a commitment with the launching of this new journal to provide peer-reviewed, open-access information to the public via downloadable PDF files. All content to be published in “Management and Organizational Studies” will be chosen through a double-blind peer review system, and upon acceptance the authors will be contacted by email to proceed with the publication process. This is the same method used by some of the top publishers of scientific journals in the country, and Sciedu Press hopes that it will serve them well in helping their qualified staff choose only the best and most important studies in management and organizational studies.

The launching of this new journal is a very exciting prospect for the staff at Sciedu Press. With a name that combines the words “Science” and “Education”, it is not surprising that they are looking for fresh and innovative new minds, as well as seasoned professionals in the field of organizational studies, to answer their open call for papers. Those interested in submitting a paper, whether it is theoretical in nature or a hard empirical study, can submit their paper through the Sciedu Press website.

All are encouraged to participate in this exciting venture from Sciedu Press, whether they are interested in submitting or simply want to access the new and original content that will be made available through the site. Sciedu Press and its supporters have high hopes that “Management and Organizational Studies” will be as successful as the rest of its prominent journals.

Research in World Economy News

Research in World Economy publishes theoretical studies and empirical articles from various economic areas, including general economic theory, political economics, economic history and population, resources and environmental economics. The journal also covers related economic topics such as  national economics, finance, industrial economics, labor economics, international trade, statistics, social science, quantitative economics, demography and more. The journal is published in both online and printed versions. All publications are open access in full text and free to download.

We are seeking submissions for the forthcoming issue of Research in World Economy. All papers should be written in professional English. The length of 3000-8000 words is preferred. All manuscripts should be prepared in MS-Word format, and submitted online:

In addition, we welcome proposals for special issues with any topic in the field of economics.
It is appreciated if you could share this information with your colleagues and associates. Thank you.

International Journal of Financial Research News

International Journal of Financial Research publishes peer-reviewed articles in full range of theoretical and empirical topics in finance area, from corporate finance, accounting, insurance theory to monetary banking, stock exchange, capital markets and more. The journal is published in both online and printed versions. All publications are open access in full text and free to download.

We are seeking submissions for the forthcoming issue of International Journal of Financial Research in October 2013. All papers should be written in professional English. The length of 3000-8000 words is preferred. All manuscripts should be prepared in MS-Word format, and submitted online:

Journal of Management and Strategy News

Journal of Management and Strategy has just published its latest online issue at

We are seeking submissions for the forthcoming issue of Journal of Management and Strategy in November 2013. All papers should be written in professional English. The length of 3000-8000 words is preferred. All manuscripts should be prepared in MS-Word format, and submitted online:

In addition, we welcome proposals for special issues with any topic in the field of management and strategy.

It is appreciated if you could share this information with your colleagues and associates. Thank you.

International Journal of Business Administration News

International Journal of Business Administration is devoted to publishing research papers for academics and professors to share advances in business and management theory and practice. Issues that the journal covers include business administration, marketing, entrepreneurship, human resources, business innovation, organization theory and more. The journal is published in both online and printed versions. All publications are open access in full text and free to download.

We are seeking submissions for the forthcoming issue of International Journal of Business Administration in November 2013. All papers should be written in professional English. The length of 3000-8000 words is preferred. All manuscripts should be prepared in MS-Word format, and submitted online:

MTDPNA in Non-Oil International Organisations in Libyan Post Crisis

For years, training needs analysis has beenmainly about conducting an effective TDP, also training needsare assessed to identify who needs to be trained and the type of training programme they require (Al-Khayyat, 1998; Holten et al., 2000). During the last decade, there is no doubt that training needs assessments are more effective and successful, as the concept of training needs assessment has changed from being a shift from training outcomes to training as a vital business strategy for organisations (Earley and Peterson, 2004; Stone, 2009). Therefore training needs assessment is conducted to assess employees or managers strengths and weaknesses before delivering the training and developing programme (Graf, 2004b; Littrell and Salas, 2005; Tarique and Caligiuri, 2004). Also, training and development programmes which include methodical assessment may decrease costs and time of the programme, as they will be able to control the opportunity and sort of training and development which is essential. (Selmer, 2000)

In this paper, we intend to investigate management training and development programme needs assessment (MTDPNA) in Libyan post-crisis (LPC). An effective training programme is an important key stage undertaken by any organisations in determining the type of T&DP to be provided to their employees or managers.And also to ensure that resources are utilised efficiently, to provide some important information in regards to the topic in the country of study (Libya). As a first step, we present the importance of NOIO in Libyan post-crisis. Second we review literature based on MTDP and MTDP in Libya in particular. MTDP needs assessment in Libya and the Arab region. However very few studies were found in regards to MTDPNA in Libya. Third we distributed questionnaires to all managerial level in 19 NOIO in Libya. Based on our results, we provide suggestions for NOIO in LPC to conduct MTDPNA at different time and to use different methods, and all department can be involved in making decision, as well as MTDPNA can be delivered equally.

2. The importance of NOIO in LPC

In today’s global business environment and dynamic markets, organisations are moving to increase their profit and expand their market outside their region. They also seek to locate their strategy in developing countries to reduce their production costs (Jiraphan, 2000). In addition, according to Moran (2005, quoted in Gamal, 2008), foreign investment helps to overcome many local economic problems.

Therefore, for many years Libya and some Arab countries have been the largest and the most active market for foreign organisations, particularly when they discovered oil (Enshassi, & Burgess, 1990).

However, Eid & Fiona (2003) found that, the Arab countries still receive less Foreign Direct Investment compared to world FDI flows, which mean that FDI plays small part within the Arab region. They suggested that the Arab region and Libya is part of it, have to take some crucial steps to encourage FDI to come to the region and do full business by focusing on three critical areas: public institutions, physical infrastructure, and human resource development. Certainly, by continuing the development process and implementing these three critical areas, the Arab countries can successfully increase investment for long-term benefits (Eid, & Fiona, 2003).

In this regards, Libya is trying to play a crucial role in enticing NOIO to come to Libya and to do a full range of economic activities in order to achieve the highest levels of national growth with a greater access to global markets, and in the hope of raising living standards.

Therefore, steps have been taken by the Libyan Government to promote investment in the non-oil sector, which will be on one hand to create more jobs and to increase minimum wages, labour safety standards, etc. (Hartungi, 2006), and on the other hand to reduce the official unemployment rate which is running in excess of 30% (Political Risk Yearbook: Libya Country Report, 2009).

On achieving that, the government implemented Law No5 in 1997 and its special provisions in 2003, to encourage foreign organisations to enter Libya by establishing branch offices, joint ventures, and representative offices or full business. (Law No. 5, 1997 for Promotion of Investment of Foreign Capital); Amended by (Law No. 7, 2003); and with the finally amended to (Law No. 9, 2010)

According to a speech by the Secretary of General People’s for Economy (and Minister of Economy) in the International Conference on Trade and Investment on Tuesday, 30 March 2010 in Tripoli, “Libya made 150 billion diners for the development of infrastructure, pointing to the availability of all the investment opportunities in various fields in Libya” (

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(The original author: Ahmed Mustafa Younes, Jim Stewart, Niki Kyriakidou

Published by Sciedu Press)

Date Published: 08/07/2013
5 / 5 stars

Agency Theory Explanations of Self-Serving Sales Forecast Inaccuracies

Both managers and front-line employees alike would agree that workplace behaviors are usually predetermined by how one is evaluated and measured. Indeed, one of the many clichés that has emerged in the corporate world is “show me how I’m measured and I’ll show you how I act.” This paper draws attention to a dysfunctional impact of this cliché by investigating how sales compensation systems can lead to lower firm performance through inaccurate and manipulative forecasts by the sales force.

As a result of constant environmental change, fluctuations in customer order volumes, and incorrect estimates of product demand, sales forecasting is a very complex process. Despite these complexities, sales forecasting remains a key determinant of superior planning and resource allocation because it is a key ingredient for managerial decision making (Lynn, Schnaars, & Skov, 1999; Rieg, 2010). Indeed, executives and managers rely on sales forecasts to make decisions that define strategic alternatives and how resources are allocated in the organization (Lynn, Schnaars, & Skov, 1999). Because of this, firms that forecast more accurately can deploy resources more efficiently.

But sales forecasts are frequently wrong. Simpson (2000) reported that 59% of procurement respondents believed that sales forecasts were only somewhat accurate. Because forecasts are relied upon as if they are accurate and are reference points for managerial decision-making (Lynn et al., 1999), imprecise forecasts cause firms to absorb superfluous carrying costs and/or liquidate excess inventory when consumer product demand subsides. In the latter case, companies may be required to take actions such as selling excess inventory below cost or disassembling manufactured products and reselling the standardized parts. Each of these scenarios could result in considerable financial cost. Thus, firms must take care not to overstate sales forecasts since they result in higher overall costs, which could put the firm at a disadvantage vis-à-vis competitors (Porter, 1980).

Sales forecasts are influenced in several ways, yet the factors impacting accuracy can be divided into three main components: (1) dynamic external, (2) dynamic internal, and (3) manipulative internal factors. Dynamic external factors generate forecast errors caused by exogenous factors, such as environmental scanning deficiencies, macroeconomic disruptions, technological discontinuities, as well as other factors (Hambrick & Mason, 1984). Not unlike the dynamic external factors that impact forecasting accuracy, there is also a dynamic component to internal forecasting error. Weaknesses in forecasting planning (e.g., incorrect trend analysis), human error, and other related factors generate internal forecasting errors. McCarthy, Davis, Golicic and Mentzer (2006) found that more than two-thirds of survey respondents reported an absence of accountability for forecast accuracy. Dynamic external and internal forecasting errors are eminent given the unpredictability of organizational and competitive environments. The focus of our paper, however, is on manipulative internal factors, which are factors that make inaccurate forecasts avoidable.

Specifically, inaccurate forecasts might result from how sales compensation systems are setup because such systems appear to create goal incongruence between managers and the sales force. Agency theory (Jensen & Meckling, 1976) may explain why this incongruence develops, and what managers can do to ‘close the gap.’ In its classical form, agency theory models the relationship between one who assigns responsibilities (the principal) and one who fulfils them (the agent, which in this case is the sales person). Conflict or goal incongruence arises from the contract that governs this relationship. Recognizing that organizations are fraught with divergent interests, the goal of agency theory is to establish optimal compensation contracts between principals and agents to induce agents to act in principals’ interests (Bloom & Milkovich, 1998).

Although most agency theory research has focused on top executive compensation (e.g., Nyberg, Fulmer, Gerhart, & Carpenter, 2010; Pepper & Gore, 2012; Rajgopal, Shevlin, & Zamora, 2006), we believe that the underlying problem is also evident in the relationship between management and salespeople. Sales compensation systems historically been designed to reward individuals for their direct contributions to firm revenues via commissions on sales. Such systems place compensation risk solely on the salesperson. However, by utilizing such systems, organizations may be writing a prescription for excessive inventory due to manipulative sales forecasts. Specifically, as compensation risk is inherently transferred to the salesperson in a commission-based structure (instead of a salary-based structure), an unintended consequence might be that sales forecasts are manipulated to transfer other forms of risk back to the principal.


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(The original author: Samuel Y. Todd, Tamara A. Crook, Tony Lachowetz

Published by Sciedu Press)

Date Published: 08/05/2013
5 / 5 stars

Seller – Buyer Supply Chain Games Where Shortage Are Permitted

In the area of seller-buyer supply chain management, researchers have been very active in seeking optimal policies for both players to achieve a favorable outcome. Most studies are based on somewhat unrealistic assumptions such as deterministic demand and unpermitted shortages. In reality, due to factors such as irregular production capacity or unanticipated demands, shortages will occur, and it will influence both players’ decisions. In this paper, we include shortage as a decision variable determined by the seller, and demand is assumed sensitive to both selling price and marketing expenditure. The interaction between seller and buyer will be investigated as non-cooperative Stackelberg game, and the cooperation between seller and buyer will be explored based on Pareto-efficient solution concept. Consequences of the non–cooperative and cooperative aspects of these games will be compared and finally, numerical examples and sensitivity analysis will be presented to compare between models with and without shortages.

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(The original author: Xu Zhang, Panlop Zeephongsekul, Maryam Esmaeili

Published by Sciedu Press)

Date Published: 08/02/2013
5 / 5 stars

Maximising the Worth of the Young Accountant in Ghana, Treasury Bills or Shares?

For most of your life, you will be earning and spending money. Rarely, though will your current income exactly balance with your consumption desires. Sometimes, you may have more money than you want to spend; at other times, you may want to purchase more than you benefit from your income (Reilly 2003).One would thus need to invest to meet some known or unforeseen circumstances in the future.

Treasury Bills have gained a high appeal among the Ghanaian population as securities with high returns and virtually no default risk (Aboagye, 2003). The establishment of the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) in 1990 represented a significant change in the securities markets in Ghana. There are currently 35 listed companies trading on the GSE. Shares on the GSE are traded regularly enabling listed equities to provide more liquidity than unlisted equities, since it is more difficult to dispose off unlisted shares than shares of listed companies. An asset is liquid if it can be quickly converted to cash at a price close to fair market value (Reilly2003) Treasury bills are highly liquid security.

According to finance theory “Those who bear systematic risk expect to be rewarded in the long run”. It is therefore logical that the expected returns on equity investment which is riskier should attract more returns than the return on treasury bills which has virtually no default risk unless the state is destroyed.

Investors are rewarded for bearing risks. In the stock market, investors are rewarded for bearing risk with a risk premium. This risk-return trade off is so fundamental in financial economics that it could well be described as the “first fundamental law of finance.” Ghysels(2004). Investors stand the chance to earn positive risk premiums. This induces them to make investments with potential gains to the whole economy. One issue that bothers investors is inflation.

In general, investors do not like rising prices because that introduces uncertainty into their lives and makes it difficult to plan for the future. Therefore, investors focus on the returns they will receive over and above the rate of inflation.

This is called the real return. The return that investors receive prior to considering the rate of inflation is called nominal returns. Economic theory holds that the real return is approximately given as the nominal return minus the rate of inflation.

Finance theory on the other hand, has it that the rate of return an investor earns is dependent on the level of risk involved in that investment. Risk refers to the chance that some unfavourable event will occur (Brigham 2001). Investment in stocks (shares) is taking high risk. This is because it is possible that the price of the stocks will drop to such an extent that you may lose all your monies invested. Again the return from stocks cannot be estimated precisely.

On the other hand, investment in treasury bills is risk free. The rate of return on treasury bills can be estimated quite precisely. That is, you are sure of exactly how much you will earn upon the maturity of the investment. Investments in stocks are relatively riskier because there is a significant danger of earning much less than the expected return. To illustrate the riskiness, suppose an investor buys GHS 10,000 of short term treasury bills with an expected return of 9%.In this case, the rate of return on the investment 9 percent, can be estimated quite precisely, and the investment is defined as being essentially risk free. However if the same amount has been invested in Stock of a company, then one could analyse and conclude that the rate of return is likely to be 20%, but the investor should recognise that the actual rate of return could range from +1000 percent to -100 percent. Because there is a significant danger of actually earning much less than the expected return, the stock would be relatively risky. Theory thus has it that no investment should be undertaken unless the expected return is high enough to compensate the investor for the perceived risk of investment. The high the probability of default, the riskier the investment; and the higher the risk, the higher the required rate of return.

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(The original author: Ernest Bruce-Twum

Published by Sciedu Press)

Date Published: 08/01/2013
5 / 1 stars